Science. Music. More languages than are really necessary. Ranting. Also cats. A despicable creature; if there's a hell, I'm burning in there for all eternity.

 

spaceplasma:

How did scientists determine our location within the Milky Way galaxy—in other words, how do we know that our solar system is in the arm of a spiral galaxy, far from the galaxy’s center? 

There is no short answer to this question, because astronomers have followed many lines of evidence to determine the location of the solar system in the Milky Way. But some of the general techniques can be outlined briefly.
Finding one’s location in a cloud of a hundred billion stars—when one can’t travel beyond one’s own planet—is like trying to map out the shape of a forest while tied to one of the trees. One gets a rough idea of the shape of the Milky Way galaxy by just looking around—a ragged, hazy band of light circles the sky. It is about 15 degrees wide, and stars are concentrated fairly evenly along the strip. That observation indicates that our Milky Way Galaxy is a flattened disk of stars, with us located somewhere near the plane of the disk. Were it not a flattened disk, it would look different. For instance, if it were a sphere of stars, we would see its glow all over the sky, not just in a narrow band. And if we were above or below the disk plane by a substantial amount, we would not see it split the sky in half—the glow of the Milky Way would be brighter on one side of the sky than on the other.
The position of the sun in the Milky Way can be further pinned down by measuring the distance to all the stars we can see. In the late 18th century, astronomer William Herschel tried to do this, concluding that the earth was in the center of a ‘grindstone’-shaped cloud of stars. But Herschel was not aware of the presence of small particles of interstellar dust, which obscure the light from the most distant stars in the Milky Way. We appeared to be in the center of the cloud because we could see no further in all directions. To a person tied to a tree in a foggy forest, it looks like the forest stretches equally away in all directions, wherever one is.
A major breakthrough in moving the earth from the center of the galaxy to a point about 3/5 away from the edge came in the early decades of this century, when Harlow Shapley measured the distance to the large clusters of stars called globular clusters. He found they were distributed in a spherical distribution about 100,000 light-years in diameter, centered on a location in the constellation Sagittarius. Shapley concluded (and other astronomers have since verified) that the center of the distribution of globular clusters is the center of the Milky Way as well, so our galaxy looks like a flat disk of stars embedded in a spherical cloud, or ‘halo,’ of globular clusters.
In the past 75 years, astronomers have refined this picture, using a variety of techniques of radio, optical, infrared and even x-ray astronomy, to fill in the details: the location of spiral arms, clouds of gas and dust, concentrations of molecules and so on. The essential modern picture is that our solar system is located on the inner edge of a spiral arm, about 25,000 light-years from the center of the galaxy, which is in the direction of the constellation of Sagittarius.

Credit: Laurence A. Marschall in the department of physics at Gettysburg College

spaceplasma:

How did scientists determine our location within the Milky Way galaxy—in other words, how do we know that our solar system is in the arm of a spiral galaxy, far from the galaxy’s center?

There is no short answer to this question, because astronomers have followed many lines of evidence to determine the location of the solar system in the Milky Way. But some of the general techniques can be outlined briefly.

Finding one’s location in a cloud of a hundred billion stars—when one can’t travel beyond one’s own planet—is like trying to map out the shape of a forest while tied to one of the trees. One gets a rough idea of the shape of the Milky Way galaxy by just looking around—a ragged, hazy band of light circles the sky. It is about 15 degrees wide, and stars are concentrated fairly evenly along the strip. That observation indicates that our Milky Way Galaxy is a flattened disk of stars, with us located somewhere near the plane of the disk. Were it not a flattened disk, it would look different. For instance, if it were a sphere of stars, we would see its glow all over the sky, not just in a narrow band. And if we were above or below the disk plane by a substantial amount, we would not see it split the sky in half—the glow of the Milky Way would be brighter on one side of the sky than on the other.

The position of the sun in the Milky Way can be further pinned down by measuring the distance to all the stars we can see. In the late 18th century, astronomer William Herschel tried to do this, concluding that the earth was in the center of a ‘grindstone’-shaped cloud of stars. But Herschel was not aware of the presence of small particles of interstellar dust, which obscure the light from the most distant stars in the Milky Way. We appeared to be in the center of the cloud because we could see no further in all directions. To a person tied to a tree in a foggy forest, it looks like the forest stretches equally away in all directions, wherever one is.

A major breakthrough in moving the earth from the center of the galaxy to a point about 3/5 away from the edge came in the early decades of this century, when Harlow Shapley measured the distance to the large clusters of stars called globular clusters. He found they were distributed in a spherical distribution about 100,000 light-years in diameter, centered on a location in the constellation Sagittarius. Shapley concluded (and other astronomers have since verified) that the center of the distribution of globular clusters is the center of the Milky Way as well, so our galaxy looks like a flat disk of stars embedded in a spherical cloud, or ‘halo,’ of globular clusters.

In the past 75 years, astronomers have refined this picture, using a variety of techniques of radio, optical, infrared and even x-ray astronomy, to fill in the details: the location of spiral arms, clouds of gas and dust, concentrations of molecules and so on. The essential modern picture is that our solar system is located on the inner edge of a spiral arm, about 25,000 light-years from the center of the galaxy, which is in the direction of the constellation of Sagittarius.

Credit: Laurence A. Marschall in the department of physics at Gettysburg College

afro-dominicano:


Turbulent Black Holes Grow Fractal Skins As They Feed

Feeding black holes develop a fractal skin as they grow. That’s the conclusion of simulations that take advantage of a correlation between fluid dynamics and gravity.
"We showed that when you throw stuff into a black hole, the surface of the black hole responds like a fluid – and in particular, it can become turbulent," says Allan Adams at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "More precisely, the horizon itself becomes a fractal."
Fractals are mathematical sets that show self-similar patterns: zoom in on one part of a fractal drawing, like the famous Mandelbrot set, and the smaller portion will look nearly the same as the original image. Objects with fractal geometries show up all over nature, from clouds to the coast of England.
Adams and his colleagues have now found evidence that fractal behaviour occurs in an unexpected place: on the surface of a feeding black hole. Black holes grow by devouring matter that falls into them; the black hole at the centre of our galaxy is due to feast on a gas cloud later this year. But the details of how feeding black holes grow, and how this might affect their host galaxies, are still unknown.

afro-dominicano:

Turbulent Black Holes Grow Fractal Skins As They Feed

Feeding black holes develop a fractal skin as they grow. That’s the conclusion of simulations that take advantage of a correlation between fluid dynamics and gravity.

"We showed that when you throw stuff into a black hole, the surface of the black hole responds like a fluid – and in particular, it can become turbulent," says Allan Adams at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "More precisely, the horizon itself becomes a fractal."

Fractals are mathematical sets that show self-similar patterns: zoom in on one part of a fractal drawing, like the famous Mandelbrot set, and the smaller portion will look nearly the same as the original image. Objects with fractal geometries show up all over nature, from clouds to the coast of England.

Adams and his colleagues have now found evidence that fractal behaviour occurs in an unexpected place: on the surface of a feeding black hole. Black holes grow by devouring matter that falls into them; the black hole at the centre of our galaxy is due to feast on a gas cloud later this year. But the details of how feeding black holes grow, and how this might affect their host galaxies, are still unknown.

sci-universe:

This is a new composite image which shows "fireworks" caused by a black hole in a nearby galaxy NGC 4258 (also known as M106). It features X-rays from Chandra (blue), radio waves from the VLA (purple), optical data from Hubble (yellow and blue), and infrared with Spitzer (red).
NGC 4258 is a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way, but it’s famous for something that our Galaxy doesn’t have – two extra spiral arms that glow in X-ray, optical, and radio light. These features, or anomalous arms, are not aligned with the plane of the galaxy, but instead intersect with it. There has now been made a new study by Patrick Ogle, Lauranne Lanz and Philip Appleton from the California Institute of Technology which is explaining those spectacles. Radio shows that the supermassive black hole at the center of NGC 4258 is producing powerful jets of high-energy particles, and researchers think that these jets strike the disk of the galaxy and generate shock waves. (Full article here»)

sci-universe:

This is a new composite image which shows "fireworks" caused by a black hole in a nearby galaxy NGC 4258 (also known as M106). It features X-rays from Chandra (blue), radio waves from the VLA (purple), optical data from Hubble (yellow and blue), and infrared with Spitzer (red).

NGC 4258 is a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way, but it’s famous for something that our Galaxy doesn’t have – two extra spiral arms that glow in X-ray, optical, and radio light. These features, or anomalous arms, are not aligned with the plane of the galaxy, but instead intersect with it.
There has now been made a new study by Patrick Ogle, Lauranne Lanz and Philip Appleton from the California Institute of Technology which is explaining those spectacles. Radio shows that the supermassive black hole at the center of NGC 4258 is producing powerful jets of high-energy particles, and researchers think that these jets strike the disk of the galaxy and generate shock waves. (Full article here»)

spaceexp:

A ring of dark matter in a galaxy cluster as captured by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

spaceexp:

A ring of dark matter in a galaxy cluster as captured by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

m-arkiplier:

please respect feminine non binary people.

please respect androgynous non binary people.

please respect masculine non binary people.

please always remember non binary people don’t have to dress in anyway to prove their gender identity to you.

Education is not only learning from books, memorising(sic) some facts, but also learning how to look, how to listen to what the books are saying, whether they are saying something true or false. All that is part of Education

by J. Krishnamurti - Philosophy - 2001 - 189 pages (via adventuresinlearning) (via adventuresinlearning) (via spatialtopiary)

thinksquad:

The Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office declined to press charges against a sheriff’s deputy who was apparently distracted by his mobile digital computer when he fatally struck cyclist Milton Olin Jr. in Calabasas in December, officials announced Wednesday.
Olin, a prominent entertainment attorney, was riding his bicycle in the 22400 block of Mulholland Highway when he was struck by L.A. County Sheriff’s Deputy Andrew Wood’s patrol car in the bicycle lane on the afternoon of Dec. 8. The former A&M Records and Napster executive reportedly landed on the windshield and shattered the glass before rolling off the patrol car. He was pronounced dead at the scene.
http://www.dailynews.com/general-news/20140827/in-calabasas-death-of-cyclist-milton-olin-no-charges-against-typing-deputy

thinksquad:

The Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office declined to press charges against a sheriff’s deputy who was apparently distracted by his mobile digital computer when he fatally struck cyclist Milton Olin Jr. in Calabasas in December, officials announced Wednesday.

Olin, a prominent entertainment attorney, was riding his bicycle in the 22400 block of Mulholland Highway when he was struck by L.A. County Sheriff’s Deputy Andrew Wood’s patrol car in the bicycle lane on the afternoon of Dec. 8. The former A&M Records and Napster executive reportedly landed on the windshield and shattered the glass before rolling off the patrol car. He was pronounced dead at the scene.

http://www.dailynews.com/general-news/20140827/in-calabasas-death-of-cyclist-milton-olin-no-charges-against-typing-deputy